Emperor penguins face extinction
Emperor penguins, whose long treks across Antarctic ice to mate have been immortalised by Hollywood, are heading towards extinction, scientists say.
Based on predictions of sea ice extent from climate change models, the penguins are likely to see their numbers plummet by 95% by 2100.
That corresponds to a decline to just 600 breeding pairs in the world.
The research is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Emperor penguins, the largest species, are unique in that they are the only penguins that breed during the harsh Antarctic winters.
Colonies gather far inland after long treks across sea ice, where the females lay just one egg that is tended by the male. That means that the ice plays a major role in their overall breeding success.
What is more, the extent of sea ice cover influences the abundance of krill and the fish species that eat them - both food sources for the penguins.
Hal Caswell of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and his colleagues used projections of sea ice coverage from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) last report.
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