Where do air emissions come from? Obviously there are many sources but figuring out what and where requires organization of the data such as by mapping. Arizona State University researchers have developed a new software system capable of estimating greenhouse gas emissions across entire urban landscapes, all the way down to roads and individual buildings. Until now, scientists quantified carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at a much broader level. Dubbed Hestia after the Greek goddess of the hearth and home, researchers presented the new system in an article published Oct. 9 in Environmental Science and Technology. Hestia combines extensive public database data-mining with traffic simulation and building-by-building energy-consumption modeling. Its high-resolution maps clearly identify CO2 emission sources in a way that policymakers can utilize and the public can understand.
"Cities have had little information with which to guide reductions in
greenhouse gas emissions and you canâ€™t reduce what you canâ€™t measure,"
said Kevin Gurney, an associate professor in ASUâ€™s School of Life
Sciences, and senior scientist with the Global Institute of
Sustainability. "With Hestia, we can provide cities with a complete,
three-dimensional picture of where, when and how carbon dioxide
emissions are occurring."
The research team collected data from a wide variety of sources such as local air pollution reports, traffic counts, and tax assessor parcel information. The data is then combined within a modeling system for quantifying CO2 emissions at the level of individual buildings and street segments.
So far, scientists have applied Hestia to the city of Indianapolis, and work is ongoing for the cities of Los Angeles and Phoenix. They hope to ultimately map the CO2 emissions in all major cities across the United States, which accounts for nearly one-quarter of all global CO2 emissions. The Hestia research team believes this type of detailed emissions information will help determine what we as a society can do locally and globally about climate change.
"As a community, we must take a leadership role in sustaining our relationship with the environment," said ASU President Michael M. Crow. "This research, and its implications for global engagement regarding climate change, is an exciting step forward. Hestia gives us the next tool we need to help policymakers create effective greenhouse gas legislation."
According to researchers, Hestiaâ€™s increased detail and accuracy will help cities, and possibly even other nations, identify where an investment in energy and greenhouse gas savings would have the greatest impact.
"Leading in sustainability is not easy; however, as mayor, I am committed to doing so," Phoenix Mayor Greg Stanton said.
"Hestia offers practical information we can use to identify the most cost-effective ways to reduce emissions and track progress over time," Gurney said. "Scientists have spent decades describing the seriousness of climate change. Now, we are offering practical information to help do something about it."
There is a fascination about seeing it visually on a map that tabulated data does not do.
For further information see Hestia.
Figure image by Bedrich Benes and Michel Abdul-Massih via University of Purdue.