Enn Original News

Cheers! Uncovering Alcohol's Addictive Quality
January 12, 2012 09:39 AM - David A Gabel, ENN

Alcohol is one of the most addicting substances on Earth. Alcoholism is so prevalent and can be so disruptive to society that the United States once succeeded in banning it. Remnants of the Prohibition and America's puritanical founding can still be seen in the "blue laws" of many areas. It is often an underlying factor in traffic accidents and violent crime. But if alcohol can cause such egregious behavior and cause debilitating health problems, why do alcoholics keep drinking? A new study from the University of California, San Francisco has scientifically uncovered the truth behind alcohol addiction. The answer lies in endorphins, naturally produced chemicals in the brain that create opiate-like effects.

GHGs and Where They Are
January 11, 2012 12:33 PM - Andy Soos, ENN

In January 2012, for the first time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released greenhouse gas (GHG) data collected under the GHG Reporting Program. GHG is primarily Carbon Dioxide but includes many other other chemicals such as methane. The data shows 2010 U.S. GHG emissions from large industrial facilities, and from suppliers of certain fossil fuels and industrial gases. Reporting entities used uniform methods for estimating emissions, which enables data to be compared and analyzed. The data shows the larger GHG emitters are power plants followed by petroleum refineries. GHG data are now easily accessible to the public through the EPA’s GHG Reporting Program. The 2010 GHG data to be released includes public information from facilities in nine industry groups that directly emit large quantities of GHGs, as well as suppliers of certain fossil fuels and high global warming gases.

Baby Cries Evoke an Instinctually Rapid Response
January 11, 2012 10:24 AM - David A Gabel, ENN

It pierces the night-time silence like a dagger, immediately awaking the sleeping adults in the next room. After a few groans, the adults are on their feet, groggily making their way in the direction of the high-pitched distress call. Yes, baby cries can be quite a handful to deal with for new parents. They are extremely difficult to ignore. In fact, humans have evolved in such a way that a baby cry will cause an instinctual reaction, and will cause a statistically faster response than other similar-pitched sounds.

Radar Study of Kilauea
January 10, 2012 12:00 PM - Andy Soos, ENN

Kīlauea is a volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, and one of five shield volcanoes that together form the island of Hawaiʻi. The Puʻu ʻŌʻō cone has been continuously erupting in the eastern rift-zone since 1983, making it the longest rift-zone eruption of the last 200 years. Thirty-five eruptions have taken place since 1952, not including the current episode. An airborne radar developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., has just returned to Hawaii to continue its study of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii's current most active volcano. UAVSAR uses a technique called interferometry that sends pulses of microwave energy from the sensor on the aircraft to the ground to detect and measure very subtle deformations in Earth's surface.

How Elks are Destroying Song Birds
January 10, 2012 09:32 AM - David A Gabel, ENN

The link between the two very different species may seem strange, but taken in the context of climate change, it makes perfect sense. Elks are highly prevalent in the American West and are known to be prolific eaters of local flora. One of climate change's most noticeable effects in this region is the decrease in amount of winter snowfall. This allows the elks to continue consuming plants and at higher elevations. As a result, deciduous trees and their associated song birds have been in continuous decline.

Top 10 ethical destinations in the developing world
January 9, 2012 05:06 PM - Editor, Green Traveler Guides

Every year, Ethical Traveler reviews the policies and practices of the world's developing nations, then selects the ten that are doing the best job of preserving their environment, promoting human rights and creating a sustainable, community-based tourism industry. By visiting these destinations, we use our economic power—our travel dollars—to support these countries. In alphabetical order, the 2012 list: Argentina, The Bahamas, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominica, Latvia, Mauritius, Palau, Serbia, Uruguay. How were these countries chosen? A research team first identifies the "best" tourism destinations, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe. Next, using publicly available data, these countries are rated. (For more on the methodology, download the full report.) As Ethical Traveler researcher Natalie Lefevre points out, "None of these countries are perfect, but they deserve their spots—thanks to their effort to ensure that tourism has a positive impact on their country and their people."

Ancient Tortoise Lives On
January 9, 2012 02:58 PM - Andy Soos, ENN

The Galápagos tortoise or giant tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra) is the largest living species of tortoise, reaching weights of over 880 lb and lengths of over 5.9 feet. With life spans in the wild of over 100 years, it is one of the longest-lived vertebrates. The subspecies that lived on Floriana Island until 1850 had a modest fame as the one of the species that Darwin used in his studies. A new analysis, published January 9 in the journal Current Biology, suggests that the direct descendants of extinct Chelonoidis elephantopus live on the volcanic slopes of the northern shore of Isabela Island — 200 miles from their ancestral home of Floreana Island, where they disappeared after being hunted to extinction by whalers. "This is not just an academic exercise," said Gisella Caccone, senior research scientist in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and senior author of the paper. "If we can find these individuals, we can restore them to their island of origin. This is important as these animals are keystone species playing a crucial role in maintaining the ecological integrity of the island communities."

Study: Warming Arctic Is Decimating Harp Seal Populations
January 9, 2012 09:44 AM - David A Gabel, ENN

Scientists from Duke University and the International Fund for Animal Welfare have conducted a study of the harp seal in northern Canada. Harp seals, the cute and cuddly creatures, have long been hunted for their prized furs. To add to their struggle, the thinning ice is playing havoc with their breeding ground. Female seals depend on stable winter ice to give birth and feed their young in peace. Forced to go to ice closer to land, the baby seals are sitting ducks for arctic predators and human hunters. The seal pups are being forced to fend for themselves before they are ready. As a result, their populations are dropping catastrophically.

Meteor Showers in 2012
January 6, 2012 12:13 PM - Andy Soos, ENN

A meteor shower is a celestial event in which a number of meteors are observed to radiate from one point in the night sky. These meteors are caused by streams of cosmic debris called meteoroids entering the atmosphere extremely high speeds on parallel trajectories. Most meteors are smaller than a grain of sand, so almost all of them disintegrate and never hit the Earth's surface. Intense or unusual meteor showers are known to produce greater than 1,000 meteors an hour. Whether you're watching from a downtown area or the dark countryside, there are some tips to help you enjoy these celestial shows of shooting stars. Those streaks of light are really caused by tiny specks of comet-stuff hitting Earth's atmosphere at very high speed and disintegrating in flashes of light. First a word about the moon - it is not the meteor watcher's friend. Light reflecting off a bright moon can be just as detrimental to good meteor viewing as those bright lights of the big city. There is nothing you can do except curse, so you'll have to put up with it or wait until the next favorable shower.

The Great Extinction
January 6, 2012 11:07 AM - Andy Soos, ENN

Some 250 million years ago, the earth suffered the greatest biological crisis in its history. Around 95% of all living species died out--a global catastrophe far greater than the dinosaurs' demise 65 million years ago. How this happened remains a mystery. But there are many competing theories. Now, they have discovered a new culprit likely involved in the annihilation: an influx of mercury into the eco-system. "No one had ever looked to see if mercury was a potential culprit. This was a time of the greatest volcanic activity in Earth's history and we know today that the largest source of mercury comes from volcanic eruptions," says Dr. Steve Grasby of the University of Calgary, co-author of a paper published this month in the journal Geology. "We estimate that the mercury released then could have been up to 30 times greater than today's volcanic activity, making the event truly catastrophic."

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