Tribes and Forest Service Discuss Sacred Sites
CRAZY HORSE, S.D. Tribal leaders, elders and members met with National Forest Service officials in a two-day consultation/listening session to begin a process of forming an advisory group, define consultation and sacred sites in an atmosphere a majority of people described as powerful and unprecedented in dealings with federal agencies.
Frequently referring to "blank page policies," National Forest Service officials told tribal representatives that although they had some policy and plans for an advisory group on the local and national levels, the page was clean.
Emotions ran high on both sides, and for the most part there wasn't a Forest Service person in attendance who didn't have praise for what was said and heard.
Three words from the Forest Service described the intent of the conference: collaboration, communication and coordination.
"We want to put more emphasis on tribal relations," said Brad Exton, acting supervisor of the Black Hills National Forest.
"We want to continue -- working with tribes in many areas. It's your ancestors that were in the Black Hills. We are working on partnerships to see how we can make the Black Hills for everyone," Exton said.
The Black Hills is claimed as ancestral lands by some 22 different tribes. The Lakota, now located here, claim the Black Hills (He Sapa in Lakota) as sacred land. The Black Hills, by an 1868 treaty, was to always be the land of the Lakota; however, a gold discovery by Lt. Col. George Custer, on an illegal expedition in the Black Hills in 1874, turned the treaty sour and the influx of unwelcome guests began.
Non-Indian settlers and gold prospectors trumped the Lakota treaty and settled in the region, unlawfully at first. To add insult to injury, many of the Black Hills' peaks and landmarks took on names that were offensive to the Lakota: Harney Peak, Custer Peak, Terry Peak, Custer city, Custer County and Custer State Park, just to name a few.
The people who carried those names were military leaders whose job or determination was to eliminate the indigenous people: genocide is how the Lakota refer to it today.
Alex White Plume, vice president of the Oglala Sioux Tribe, told a group of Forest Service and park officials at a different gathering that the Lakota people didn't come into the Black Hills because of what it had become. But the healing process is taking place, and the people will once again return to the sacred hills for ceremony and biological and spiritual nurturing.
A settlement that paid the Lakota millions of dollars for the Black Hills has been rejected by all of the great Sioux nation tribes. The amount, held in trust by the federal treasury, has grown to more than $600 million, yet the Sioux nation members stand by their belief that the Black Hills is not for sale.
Nearly all of the lands that are now designated as national parks and forests are on the ancestral lands of one or more tribes across the country. The Black Hills and a few other well-known parks stand as reminders to the tribes that management of the forests and grasslands should be in their hands, or at least they should be consulted about the management.
To address this, a national advisory board made up of American Indians is in the planning stages. A policy has been written but not finalized.
The Black Hills American Indian advisory board may serve as a model for the national board, Forest Service officials said.
"The Forest Service mission and vision for our future is to sustain the health of the nation's forests and grasslands. To meet the needs of the future sessions like this are so important. We have a mandate to support Indian sovereignty and culture. Line officers are on the point in this matter and recognize opportunities for tribes to move into more active roles in forest management," Exton said.
At stake is the sale of timber, herbs and other plants important in the medicines of the Lakota and other tribes. Elders claim that to sell the herbs and plants is wrong, and that if the general public is allowed to harvest the plants they will soon disappear.
Many berries, medicinal herbs and wild sage grow in the Black Hills region and in other areas of the country. Elders claim they should have free access to harvest those plants that are part of the traditions without having to reveal the location or how much they have taken.
The Forest Service now requires people to get a permit to gather plants, and on the permit the location and amount taken is recorded. This is unacceptable, tribal members say, adding that they would be giving away the locations of some of the most sought-after herbs used in medicines. Corporations would then come in, overharvest and make a profit.
The American Indian advisory board would deal with solutions to those problems, Forest Service officials said, adding that the designation of specific areas that are sacred will help to control outsiders' impact.
The two-day meeting included discussions on sacred sites, consultation and the advisory council.
Tribal officials came from Utah, Wyoming, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota. Forest Service officials gathered from Washington, D.C., the regional office in Denver, Wyoming and Montana.
"The history and knowledge is to be shared by partners; knowledge that has been handed down through the generations about relationships with wildlife and habitats, and about drought. Cultural treatment is knowledge we could benefit from to manage this land.
"We are humans and our activities are an inseparable part of the balance of nature. Some say we at the Forest Service are behind the power curve on learning these things. Many tribes have lived the concept of the ecosystem for centuries and we stand to benefit from this knowledge," Exton said.
Source: Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News