From: University of Wisconsin-Madison
Published April 17, 2017 03:53 PM

Termite gut holds a secret to breaking down plant biomass

In the Microbial Sciences Building at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, the incredibly efficient eating habits of a fungus-cultivating termite are surprising even to those well acquainted with the insect’s natural gift for turning wood to dust. - See more at: http://news.wisc.edu/termite-gut-holds-a-secret-to-breaking-down-plant-biomass/#sthash.wNKkjWOk.dpuf

According to a study published today (April 17, 2017) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, when poplar wood undergoes a short, 3.5-hour transit through the gut of the termite, the emerging feces is almost devoid of lignin, the hard and abundant polymer that gives plant cells walls their sturdiness. As lignin is notorious for being difficult to degrade, and remains a costly obstacle for wood processing industries such as biofuels and paper, the termite is the keeper of a highly sought after secret: a natural system for fully breaking down biomass.

“The speed and efficiency with which the termite is breaking down the lignin polymer is totally unexpected,” says John Ralph, a UW–Madison professor of biochemistry, researcher at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) and lignin expert. “The tantalizing implication is that this gut system holds keys to breaking down lignin using processes that are completely unknown.”

Read more at University of Wisconsin-Madison

Image: Hongjie Lie, a UW-Madison postdoctoral researcher, was the first to observe close-up the symbiotic system that unites the termites with the white rot fungus Termitomyces. (Credit: UW-Madison/James Runde)

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